Alfalfa: Genetically engineered alfalfa with corn transgenes for anthocyanin (red-purple pigment) production was not visibly altered or changed dependent on light and temperature conditions.
Apple: Apples genetically engineered to over-express a fruit-ripening enzyme lacked flowers and had malformed stomata and altered composition of cell walls.
Aspen Trees: Innate immunity is affected in aspen trees genetically engineered for insect-resistance.
Bacteria: Genetically engineered root nodule bacteria with Bt transgene tended to displace non-manipulated bacteria in legume root nodules.
Barley: Genetically engineered barley plants over-expressing a zinc transport protein had smaller seeds and did not accumulate more zinc when grown in zinc-deficient soil.
Barley: Genetically engineered barley with the transgene for a heat-stable enzyme showed highly variable levels of the enzyme, an anomalous distribution of expression in the grain, and dramatically reduced weight of individual grains.
Barley: Difficulties were encountered when trying to genetically engineer human collagen in barley.
Barley: A group of genetically engineered barley plants expressing the bar selectable marker gene did not produce viable offspring.
Bees: Genetically engineered sugarbeet production alters population densities of some arthropods, significantly reducing the number of bees and butterflies in sugar beet fields.
Bees: Fewer wild bees were observed in genetically engineered canola fields.
Bentgrass: Spread of herbicide-resistance from genetically engineered creeping bentgrass into the wild.
Birch Trees: Genetically engineered birch trees expressing an antifungal enzyme from sugarbeets showed increased susceptibility to leaf spot disease in the field.
Butterflies: Monarch butterfly larvae exposed to anthers from genetically engineered corn ate less and gained less weight.
Canola: Transgenes that have escaped from genetically engineered canola can persist in the wild.
Canola: Herbicide-resistant canola volunteers were still detected after ten years of stringent control.
Canola: Conventional, certified canola seedlots were contaminated with genetically engineered seeds.
Canola: Genetically engineered canola plants over-expressing a bacterial phytoene synthase gene also had a reduced level of chlorophyll, changed structure of plastids, changed composition of fatty acids, and delayed germination.
Canola: Experimental cross-pollination between genetically engineered herbicide-resistant canola and wild filed mustard led to highly fertile, herbicide-resistant wild field mustard.
Cotton: Genetically engineered cotton showed decreased ability to kill cotton bollworm larvae during flower development and flowering.
Cotton: Cotton plants and seeds expressing Bt toxin were found in non-Bt refuges.
Cotton: Insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton was more susceptible to fungal disease than its parent line.
Corn: Genetically engineered corn varieties matured more slowly and had on average lower grain yield and higher grain moisture content than conventional varieties.
Corn: Genetically engineered corn had changed lipid composition in stems; also, lipid composition in soil was altered, and soil respiration was reduced.
Corn: The transgenic sequences of some genetically engineered corn plants have changed since they were approved.
Dandelions: Dandelions genetically engineered to have compound leaves showed irregular leaf form and did not flower.
Humans: Transgenic DNA from glyphosate-resistant soybeans was detected in the intestinal flora of humans.
Fish: Tilapia fish engineered for transgenic expression of growth hormone had deformed heads and backs, atrophied gonads, and lower mineral content.
Flowers: Single-site integration of foreign DNA into arabidopsis showed rearrangements and deletions of both plant DNA and foreign DNA.
Flowers: Unintended changes in gene expression were observed in arabidopsis plants engineered for resistance to the herbicide glufosinate.
Flowers: Over expression of phytoene synthase gene in arabidopsis resulted in delayed germination, increased levels of chlorophyll, and changes in relative levels of carotenoids.
Insects: Byproducts from genetically engineered corn affected stream insects.
Mice: Diet containing genetically engineered soybeans affected the nuclei of liver cells in mice.
Oats: Insertion of transgenes in oats resulted in modification of both the transgenic construct and host DNA.
Peas: Peas engineered to be weevil-resistant elicited immune reactions in mice.
Pea: Peas engineered to be weevil-resistant had lowered starch digestibility when fed to chickens and pigs.
Pig: Genetically engineered pigs with elevated levels of growth hormone were infertile, pre-diabetic, and experienced joint problems.
Pig: Genetically engineered pigs expressing bovine growth hormone had lower appetites, enlarged organs, gastric ulcers, and other health problems.
Pig: Transgenic expression of a mouse milk protein impaired mammary development and function in pigs.
Pig: Sheep growth hormone expression was highly variable in genetically engineered pigs, whose bodies had more protein and water and less fat.
Pineapple: Pineapple plants genetically engineered with transgenes for fungus and herbicide resistance had altered biochemical make-up.
Potato: Genetically engineered potatoes with altered sugar metabolism had changed levels of many metabolites, some not thought to be associated with sugar metabolism.
Potato: Potatoes genetically engineered to store inulin had higher alkaloid content.
Potato: Potatoes genetically engineered to store more starch stored less starch.
Potato: Genetically engineered potatoes with transgene for virus resistance were variably resistant, and some lines without the target gene nevertheless became highly resistant.
Potato: Potatoes genetically engineered for insect-resistance had less foliage and altered levels of leaf-glycoalkaloids.
Rice: Genes escaped from cultivated genetically engineered rice to its weedy and wild relatives.
Rice: Genetically engineered rice showed signs of dwarfism and other abnormalities.
Rice: Rice genetically engineered with a disease-resistance gene activated the oxidative-stress response.
Salmon: Genetically engineered coho salmon expressing growth hormone had enlarged heads, reduced viability, and accelerated development of their life cycle.
Salmon: Genetically engineered Atlantic salmon expressing transgenic growth hormone experienced numerous changes to their cardiorespiratory system.
Salmon: Coho salmon genetically engineered for transgenic expression of growth hormone led to a narrower body, more red muscle mass, and smaller white muscle fibers.
Salmon: Coho salmon genetically engineered for transgenic expression of growth hormone were more aggressive predators in simulated natural environments.
Sheep: Sheep genetically engineered for transgenic expression of growth hormone had increased incidence of reproductive problems and premature death.
Sheep: Genetically engineered sheep had unusually high morbidity and expressed a milk-specific protein in their spleen, liver, and other organs.
Soybean: Genetically engineered soybean plants were shorter, with less chlorophyll, lower weight, and increased susceptibility to stem-splitting at high temperatures.
Soybean: Root colonization of genetically engineered soybeans by pathogenic Fusarium fungi increased with glyphosate application.
Sunflower: Wild sunflowers genetically engineered with transgene for Bt toxin produced more seeds than normal wild sunflowers.
Sugarbeet: Genetically engineered sugar beets became more susceptible to root rot when sprayed with glyphosate.
Sugarcane: Genetically engineered sugarcane plants with lectin transgene for stem borer resistance showed altered growth.
Sugarcane: Sugarcane engineered to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity had greater PPO activity, even without the transgene.
Tobacco: Discoloration and DNA rearrangements were observed in genetically engineered tobacco plants expressing HIV proteins.
Tobacco: Genetically engineered tobacco with resistance to bleaching herbicides had altered composition of carotenoids.
Tomato: Genetically engineered tomatoes had altered levels of at least fifteen other substances.
Tomato: Genetically engineered tomatoes altered with a marker gene construct showed significant changes in morphological and physiological characteristics.
Tomato: Genetically engineered tomato plants over expressing phytoene synthase gene were stunted in growth.
Weeds: Increased planting of genetically engineered crops and application of glyphosate causes increase in glyphosate-resistant weed species.
Wheat: Genetically engineered wheat transformed with a high-molecular-weight glutenin gene showed irregular expression of glutenin and changed its expression levels over subsequent generations.
Wheat: Genetically engineered spring wheat with scab-resistance transgene was non scab-resistant and showed localized death of leaf tissue.
Wheat: Genetically engineered wheat outcrosses more often than conventional wheat of the same varieties.
Wheat: Genetically engineered wheat expressing transgenic glutenin shows reduction in yield, varying production of glutenin, and altered morphology.